Thoughts on Live Streams in the Age of COVID-19

by CPM Assistant Archivist Olivia Beaudry

While we are staying safe at home, there has been an explosion of live music streams.  I am a lover of live music, some great concerts I was looking forward to for months already have been postponed for months more.  So, like many, I was thrilled when some of my favorite artists started doing live performances through various outlets such as Facebook Live, Instagram Live, YouTube, StageIt, Periscope, Concert Window, and others.  In the beginning it seemed that smaller, lesser-known, or local artists started this “revolution” as a source of income.  I have a few friends that perform full-time but are not at a national level yet, who played for virtual tips as a means to buy food, pay the rent, etc. They tell me it was working pretty well, of course not like playing live, but it was something. Some worked with the venues they were scheduled to play and broadcast from their social media accounts.  I have had one friend tell me that their audience has grown because of this. People are finding new bands they like that they probably never would have discovered in the “real world.”Let’s turn to the biggies—the popular mainstream artists.  They caught onto this trend that the other lesser-known artists were already using, and most are now playing for free.  While we know job loss is at a new level around the world, the free Garth Brooks show was nice to brighten all our moods. Now Garth Brooks and Trisha Yearwood even broadcasted their informal performance on a major TV network. Again, I love this, as a strong believer that music does make things better and is often linked to positive memories that we can all use right now. But how do these high-profile, free events affect my friends and others who are asking for tips and/or using a format that charges ticket prices to view? How can they compete? The situation would be different if Garth were playing physically in your town and on the same night as that up-and-comer. In that scenario ticket prices would probably correlate directly to the performing act’s star power.

I see this as comparable to the effects of streaming music via sites like Spotify, YouTube, or Tidal. Why buy the record when you can stream it for free? Those at the level of Garth, don’t really notice the atrociously low $0.006 they earn per stream because of the massive number of plays they get. Smaller indie artists, struggling to get their music heard in a saturated market, really do notice how little they are getting for each hard-earned stream. While I read that the paid subscriptions to Spotify have grown since the stay-at-home orders started, they still are not paying more to these artist who had relied on streams to drive attendance at live shows, but are now out of work. Buying the record at your local record store through mail is not only supporting the local business, but better supports the artist, too. But there is a bit more effort involved, and paying $15 for a physical copy of one album vs. or $10 per month for unlimited steaming doesn’t strike most consumers as a very good deal.

As an archivist I find myself grappling with how to document streaming and other ephemeral digital products, the “new normal” in the world of music.  Social media activity has been [Read more…]

Running and Music

by CPM Librarian Stephanie Bandel

I am a runner, a runner who every day rises at five in the morning, commutes two hours, completes three hours of graduate coursework, and at 6:00 p.m. sits down at the kitchen table and laces up running shoes for a short four miler. At that point I’m tired, I’m questioning my desire to continue pursuing my master’s degree, I’m doubting myself, and I’m worried. So I finish lacing up, walk slowly down my driveway while fiddling with my phone to launch Spotify, access my “Run It” playlist, and hit “Shuffle.”

Stephanie’s “Run It” playlist

The music pushes me to take my first steps into another nightly run. Instantly my thoughts change. I’m not doubting, I’m not worrying, and I’m not caught up in the day. Instead I’m flying, my feet racing over the pavement. Kendrick Lamar, Lady Gaga, Adele, The Weekend, Halsey and so many others cheer me on, propelling me forward both physically and mentally.

In their article pertaining to music and running Lane, Davis, and Davenport (2011) conducted a study of the effects of music on emotional states in runners. They had several participants sign up for their study, set a running goal, and choose music they felt would aid them in reaching this goal. After conducting the study, Lane, et. al. surmised that “the findings of the present study lend support to the notion that listening to music is an effective emotion regulation strategy for use in running” (p. 405). I know their findings to be true from personal experience.

I recently ran my very first half marathon: 13.1 miles of glory, guts, and (frankly) tears. I have an amazing running buddy that I enjoy talking to whenever we can find the time to run together, but around mile eight of the half marathon we fell quiet and introspective. My thoughts turned to the achy feeling developing in my knee, and I later found out her thoughts were on the possibility that she may not be able to finish. Somewhere along mile eight we separated and I decided it was time for my music.

My pre-race running packet.

Smiling before the race, with earbuds around my neck.












I shoved in my wireless earbuds, irritated that my phone was taking what seemed like centuries to start my app. Finally, I was in and I found my list. I found the second wind I so desperately needed. All my favorite up-tempo pop and rap songs flooded into my mind, and my achy knee, my thirst for water, and my desire to quit faded away. Now I was listening to power ballads, my feet pushing off the ground with every [Read more…]

Norwegian Country Music and the Value of Musical and Scholarly Exchange

I am pleased to welcome another guest blogger, Stian Vestby of Hedmark University College, whose work certainly reaches into the global part of the CPM mission. — G. Reish


Having worked at MTSU and the Center for Popular Music as an exchange scholar for nearly two months this spring, it is with great delight and appreciation that I write this guest entry for the CPM Director’s Blog. In my ongoing PhD project, I investigate the stylistic diversity and audience reception of country music in the context of a Norwegian music festival named Norsk Countrytreff (NCT). As the different musics represented at this rural festival share a deep connection to the American South, it made sense for me to study country, bluegrass, rockabilly, honky-tonk, etc. in Tennessee during the course of my doctoral research. The exchange agreement between MTSU and my Norwegian institution, Hedmark University College (HUC), provided a formal framework for my stay; the deep insights and helpful efforts of my faculty sponsor, MTSU historian Dr. Kristine McCusker, and the entire staff at the CPM have contributed greatly to my understanding of country’s many musical forms.

In this essay I briefly describe some historical and contemporary aspects of the Norwegian country scene. In doing so, I hope to shed light on global country music culture, and specifically how this music is articulated and rendered meaningful by a few selected artists and cultural agents.

Hege Øversveen

Singer-songwriter Hege Øversveen. Photo by Glenn Thomas.

In the decades following World War II, American country and Western music quickly became popular in Norway. Stars such as Buck Owens, Bobby Bare, and Loretta Lynn performed live concerts and sold many records across the country. Norwegian solo artists and bands appeared in rural areas creating their own localized forms of Norwegian country and dance band music. Some musicians also formed creative country music collectives in major cities such as Oslo and Bergen. Yet despite the continued, widespread popularity of certain artists, Norwegian country music and fans have had to bear with long-lasting cultural stigmatization similar to what equivalent music communities have faced in the United States. Some of these overlapping stigmata relate to country music’s alleged poor aesthetic and ideological values—including its (at times) conservative orientation and moralistic content—and to its ill treatment and negligence in various media.

As anti-country sentiments have not disappeared entirely, increased omnivorous taste across age groups, genders, and social classes may have contributed to the growing appreciation of country music in Norway in recent years. And if this is the case, the many young emerging talents on the contemporary Norwegian country scene are likely part of that development. Today, new generations of fans and listeners [Read more…]

American Vernacular Music Manuscripts


It would be difficult for most of us—even for our parents and grandparents—to imagine a time when the desire to hear music was not gratified by simply turning on a device of some sort. Consumer radios have been around since 1920, when stations first began broadcasting news, entertainment, and sports. Commercial recordings have been around a good bit longer, though it was also around 1920 that they really started to become commonplace in American homes. What, then, did Americans do for music in an earlier era?

Parlor-Music-19th-centurySimply put, they made it themselves. Since the colonial era, music making had been a fundamental part of common Americans’ lives. They sang, played, and danced, sometimes formally but more often informally. True, professional entertainers plied their trade in theaters, schoolhouses, and makeshift venues with increasing frequency during the 19th century, but these events remained rare for most citizens. At home, people had fiddles and (increasingly) banjos and guitars. More affluent families acquired pianos, which functioned as status symbols in homes of the growing middle class. Communities had church singings, fueled greatly by the old tradition of singing schools and the newer revivalist movements. [Read more…]

The Dreadnought

[My friend and noted historian Jerry Zolten is writing an article celebrating next year’s 100th anniversary of the dreadnought guitar for the Martin Guitar Company. He asked me to submit a few words reflecting on the historical, musical, and cultural importance of this iconic, now ubiquitous design. Some of this will presumably find its way into Jerry’s much more in-depth article, but in the meantime I thought these couple of paragraphs would make a nice blog post. –GR]

A Martin-built Ditson dreadnought from 1929. Photo from www.frets.com.

A Martin-built Ditson dreadnought from 1929. Photo from www.frets.com.

The C. F. Martin Guitar Company’s introduction of the dreadnought guitar in 1916, under the Oliver Ditson brand name, represents the pinnacle of trends in guitar design and usage that extend well-back into the nineteenth century. In the decades following the end of America’s Civil War, guitars were becoming increasingly popular, their uses breaking free of the genteel parlors where they flourished in the antebellum era. In these new performance contexts and with the rapid changes in American musical style during those years, guitars needed to be louder, more assertive, and more supportive of other instruments. As a result, their bracing patterns evolved (with most still rooted in Martin’s own x-brace innovation), their scale-lengths extended, their strings began changing over from gut to steel, and, most obviously, they were getting bigger and bigger.

While there were other experiments with large-bodied designs before and after the appearance of the first dreadnought guitars, it was Martin’s 1916 12-fret design and its 1934 14-fret modification that became the de-facto standard for large, steel-string instruments. The dreadnoughts offered an ideal combination of tone and power, playability and boldness, perfectly suited to a wide variety of popular styles in the early and mid-twentieth century. The coincidence of these breakthroughs in instrument design with the emergence of America’s roots-based commercial genres in the 1920s and 30s solidified the connections that still shape the sounds of popular music today. [Read more…]

CPM Binder’s Volumes

I am delighted to welcome the first guest contributor to the CPM Blog: Candace Bailey of North Carolina Central University. –G. Reish


At the end of September I had the opportunity to spend a week at the Center for Popular Music at MTSU. I had known about the center for some time, but I had not visited because I work on 19th-century music (antebellum period) and thought that the CPM concentrated on more recent “popular” music, such as country music or rock ’n’ roll. I confess I was absolutely blown away by the depth of the collection, the knowledge of the staff, and the various projects underway. For my own purposes, the CPM houses over 200 binder’s volumes (collections of sheet music bound together), most of which date from before 1870. Moreover, the CPM is currently involved in a digitization project of early American music manuscripts, which opened up even more avenues of investigation that I had initially considered (visit https://archive.org/details/americanmusicmanuscripts for samples of this exciting project; completed website coming soon).

As if these treasures were not enough, I was also able to draw on Lucinda Cockrell’s extensive knowledge of the area in order to broaden my research on women’s musical experiences in middle Tennessee during the antebellum period. She assisted me with gaining entrance and assistance in such venues as Oaklands Historic House Museum (http://oaklandsmuseum.org) and the Maury County Archives. Her connections to archivists in the area is considerable and proved a great help to my work. Moreover, her willingness to share items from her personal collection further augmented my trip to this area. Indeed, the entire staff proved wonderfully helpful in suggesting further resources—and, speaking as one who has worked in archives throughout the United States and Europe—this sort of assistance from multiple staff members was unique.


I left the CPM with enough ideas to occupy several years of writing. Not only did I find exactly the sorts of primary sources that I had expected to see when visiting the center, but I also located [Read more…]

Twisted Roots: Reflections on AmericanaFest

Last month I attended, for the first time, the Americana Music Association’s festival and conference up the road in Nashville. Like other music industry trade shows, AmericanaFest squeezes panel sessions, performance showcases, and the association’s annual awards show into an action- and music-packed span of several days. It also provides an important chance for industry professionals, artists, and other interested parties to meet, network, and build valuable relationships. In four days’ time I heard quite a lot of excellent music and interacted with many fine people whose musical and professional interests connect with my own in one way or another.

An industry trade show like this one, focusing an a particular genre or music marketing category, serves also to redefine the genre’s boundaries. It offers a yearly chance for those deeply involved with a particular type of popular music [Read more…]

Streaming Music: What’s Next?

I can recall with unusual clarity the day in 1976 when one of my older brothers took me (riding our bikes) to the K-Mart in Atlanta’s Broadview Plaza to buy my first LP. I had just inherited a self-contained “hi-fi” system for my room, and I was tremendously eager to have an album that was mine, purchased with my own allowance money, and not one borrowed from my brothers’ collections down the hall. The album was The Who’s Tommy,  the original double LP from 1969 rather than the movie soundtrack, though the relatively recent release of the film undoubtedly fueled my interest and enthusiasm.

Like many other budding music fans and emerging consumers, I listened to that one album many times. I developed a special connection to that music primarily because I had invested my own precious cash in it. I owned that recording, which included (in my mind) the music as well as the physical, tangible objects and corresponding information: the vinyl LPs which I cared for with the delicacy required to ensure their longevity, [Read more…]

Centering: My Vision for the CPM

In 1985 the Tennessee legislature established The Center for Popular Music at MTSU as a state “Center of Excellence,” now one of sixteen COEs in the TN Board of Regents system. This is significant in terms of funding and prestige, but it has also led me to think long and hard about what it means to be designated a center of anything.

Next year the Center for Popular Music will reach its 30th anniversary, a major milestone that I intend to celebrate with exciting public events. Indeed, there is much to celebrate about the remarkable institution which I am now fortunate enough to direct. The CPM is the oldest and largest archive devoted exclusively to the study of popular music in the world. Think for a moment about the gravity of that statement. Housing over a million items in its collection, [Read more…]

A Golden Opportunity

I first came to the Center for Popular Music at MTSU in the summer of 2010. Funded by a summer research grant from Roosevelt University (my institutional home at the time), I was in the midst of a two-week research trip studying old-time guitar styles at archives in Tennessee, Arkansas, and Kansas. My immediate goals at the CPM were to examine its substantial collection of 19th and early 20th century guitar sheet music and instructional materials, and to peruse its back catalog of rare serials such as Old-Time Music.

Compact shelving installation, 2010

Compact shelving installation, 2010

That summer was a time of major transition at the Center. Founding Director Paul Wells had just stepped down after twenty-five years at the helm. Dr. Dale Cockrell, having just retired from Vanderbilt University’s musicology faculty, was taking over as Interim Director with the intent to stay on for one year; he later became Director (no longer “Interim”) and stayed for four. Just a year earlier in 2009, the Center had become [Read more…]

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